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Mammalia > Artiodactyla > Bovidae > Tetracerus

Tetracerus quadricornis de Blainville, 1816 – Four-horned Antelope

Taxonomic Notes:

Four-horned antelope is also known as Chousingha (often spelled as Chausingha or Chowsingha). It is believed to have three subspecies viz. T. q. iodes, T. q. quadricornis, and T. q. subquadricornutus. 

This species is listed as Vulnerable in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (

Indian and global distribution:
records (based on images):
Sexual, seasonal & individual variation:
Status, Habitat and Habits:

Chousingha is the smallest of all antelopes and the only species that developes four independent horns. This species is native to India and Nepal. Subspecies T. q. iodes is distributed north to Gangetic plains especially in Nepal, T. q. quadricornis has widest distribution in central and western India, T. q. subquadricornatus is found in western Ghats and southern India. It prefers hilly terrains that are open, dry and that of deciduous forests  It is not a gregarious species, and tends be in solitary except when females having calves, males are almost always solitary. This species is diurnal and feeds on grasses as well as leaves of shrubs and small trees. 

Conservation Status:

This species is listed as Vulnerable in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (

According to IUCN Red List assessment, population of this species is estimated to be between 7000 and 10,000 mature individuals, which is decreasing all over its range. Major threats to its survival in wild come from expansion of agriculture and plantation and overgrazing by livestock. There are very less incidences of poaching although there are some accidental trapping.

Mammalia > Artiodactyla > Bovidae > Tetracerus

Cite this page along with its URL as:
Bayani, A. 2023. Tetracerus quadricornis de Blainville, 1816 – Four-horned Antelope. A. Bayani, R. Chakravarty, P. Roy, and K. Kunte (editors). Mammals of India, v. 1.13. editors.
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